Autumn is the peak time for fungi to appear in woodlands, meadows, riverbanks, roadside verges and gardens.
Coming in all shapes and sizes, they are hugely diverse and play a major role in the ecosystem by recycling waste and organic materials to help trees and plants grow. The part of the mushroom growing above the ground, the fruiting body, produces spores to reproduce. Under the ground, the mycelium is a mass of branching thread-like structures (hyphae), which absorbs nutrients from the ground and, in some cases, connects the fungus to trees and plants.
Some are edible, some are poisonous – and it’s best to leave them alone unless you’re with an expert!
Here are just some of the fungi that have been spotted around the Tame Valley Wetlands. Click on the images to enlarge them.
The last couple of weeks at Tame Valley Wetlands have been busy with Tame Force, plans for future projects and work delivering current projects. We’ve also got a few great nature spots to show!
This small white butterfly, Pieris rapae, has recently emerged from its cocoon. The pupa, which you can see in the background, has a pointed shape and attaches onto a surface with a thin silk strand. Once emerged, fluid is pumped through the wings, helping them to unfold. The butterfly rests whilst its wings dry, then is able to fly off and begin foraging.
A walk through Church Pool Covert and Lea Marston churchyard was rewarded with some fascinating fungi findings in the form of these large parasol mushrooms, Macrolepiota procera, and some bracket fungi growing on fallen dead wood.
These and other fungi play important roles in the ecosystem, especially in the nitrogen cycle, by acting as saprophytic decomposers. They break down plant materials and other waste from the forest floor, then release nitrogen back into the soil in the form of ammonium nitrate, for it to eventually be used by plants.
Click on the images below to enlarge.
Whilst carrying out habitat management and scrub clearance with Tame Force, we noticed two den holes in the ground underneath a bed of nettles, but it was unclear whether or not they were being used. Speculations were confirmed when trail camera footage from the next evening, recorded by Ian Wykes, our Development Manager, captured this fox exploring the walled garden!
The apple trees at Hams Hall Environmental Centre are now abundant with fruit. These crab apples are tiny and sharp tasting! They make excellent food for birds and other wildlife around the garden.
We are concerned that the UK Government will include Warwickshire in this year’s badger cull. Warwickshire Wildlife Trust have opposed badger culling since 2004, as there is no conclusive scientific evidence that culling badgers will decreases the incidence of bovine tubercolosis (bTB) in cattle. In fact, long-term trials by the UK Government suggest that culling could make the prevalence of bTB worse by encouraging remaining badgers to spread around.
It’s been a while since we last posted about nature spots but the wildlife around the Tame Valley Wetlands has continued to thrive! We’ve had a lot of butterfly photos and a few interesting plants too.
Here are some great shots of a brimstone butterfly, Gonepteryx rhamni. You can see from these photos how the shape, colour and vein patterns of its wings resemble leaves, giving the butterfly the ability to camouflage well whilst it hibernates over winter, one of the few butterflies in the UK that do this.
This gatekeeper butterfly, Pyronia tithonus, shows off the false eyespots on its wings which act to deter predators such as birds, giving the butterfly time to escape. The eyespots might also act as a secondary form of defence by encouraging birds to attack the wings rather than the body – damage to a butterfly’s wings is much more tolerable than harm to its body!
Robin’s pincushion is a red hairy growth that appears on wild roses, caused by the larvae of the tiny gall wasp that feeds on the plant. Despite looking significant, robin’s pincushion causes little damage to the plant. The gall holds many of the wasp grubs, which feed on the gall tissues throughout winter. The adult wasps emerge in the spring.
A common blue butterfly, Polyommatus icarus, displaying the patterned underside of its blue wings whilst feeding from a dahlia. The caterpillars of common blues have a fascinating mutualistic relationship with ants during their development. The caterpillars secrete a substance called honeydew that attracts ants. The ants will eat the honeydew and tend to the chrysalis, often taking it into their nests to protect the caterpillars from predators. The butterflies effectively use the ants for free childcare, and the ants receive a tasty meal of honeydew in return. This kind of mutualism is seen in some other species of butterfly too.
This interesting plant is the fruiting stage of Arum maculatum, commonly known as Lords and Ladies, or cuckoo pint. Its berries are highly poisonous, although you’d struggle to eat many of them as they have a acrid taste and would burn your mouth! During the flowering stage, Arum uses a method of trap pollination, in which it attracts fly pollinators to itself by emitting odour and heat. Flies fall down into the trap where the flowers are located and are prevented from escaping by a layer of hairs at the entrance. The flies deposit pollen from other plants on the female flowers, and the male flowers deposit their pollen on the flies. Once pollen transfer is complete, the trap collapses and the flies are able to escape… until the same thing happens at another Arum flower!
We’ve recently been able to welcome back our volunteer team, TameForce.
We weren’t able to hold sessions for four long months due to Covid-19, but we’re happy to say that TameForce have now returned (of course, with social distancing measures in place) and we’re so pleased to have the team back.
Last week TameForce spent the day taking care of the walled garden at Hams Hall Environmental Centre. We had a small bonfire to burn some of the excess brash.
Have you seen any hedgehogs in your garden this summer?
Over the summer months, hedgehogs will have been active from March when they first emerged from hibernation. Now, from August to September, is typically when second litters of hoglets are born. Compared with the litters born earlier in the summer, it is often more of a struggle for these late-born hedgehogs to build up their fat reserves enough before hibernation – their natural diets of insects, slugs and worms begins to diminish.
It’s a good idea to put out food and water for hedgehogs all summer long, but often particularly important during these last summer months when other food sources are harder to come by.
You’re most likely to spot hedgehogs at dusk, whilst it’s not daylight, but there is just enough light to be able to see. The hedgehog in the picture above appeared just as the light was starting to fade, out in search of sustenance!
If you see a hedgehog that looks like it needs help, for example if it is injured or out during the day and not moving, it’s a good idea to contact British Hedgehog Preservation Society.
What can I feed the hedgehogs in my garden?
Cat biscuits, meat-based cat or dog food, and specialist hedgehog food are all great to leave out for hedgehogs. Make sure to also leave out a shallow bowl of clean water so the hedgehogs can stay hydrated in the warm weather.
Avoid leaving out milk, which hedgehogs are intolerant to; bread, which is of little nutritional value for hedgehogs; and mealworms, which can be harmful if eaten in large quantities.
Let us know if you’ve seen any hedgehogs in your garden! If you manage to take any pictures, we’d love to see them too. Email firstname.lastname@example.org to get in touch.
The Wildlife Trusts have recently published a new report ‘Reversing the decline of insects’, showing how we can each contribute to helping the insect population.
Evidence from around the world has shown that many insect populations are declining, and we are facing the risk of species extinctions. It’s widely known that insects are depended on by much of life on Earth: they play a vital role in pollination of wildflowers and crops, they act as food sources for other animals, many plants depend on them for seed dispersal, they are important in nutrient cycling, and they can often get rid of pests.
Where would we be without insects?! It is essential that their populations are restored.
Insects need a ‘recovery network’. They need more good quality, linked-up, pesticide-free habitats. The Wildlife Trusts have called on the Government to help reverse the decline of insects by taking actions such as reducing pesticide usage, encouraging insect-friendly farming techniques and working towards this recovery network.
There are a few simple actions you can take to helping reverse insect decline:
Stop using pesticides
Create insect-friendly habitats in your garden, such as ponds, long grassy areas and areas of nectar-rich flowers
Reduce your frequency of lawn mowing to create more food and shelter for insects
Build a ‘bug hotel’, or simply leave a small pile of rocks or logs to create habitats
Try to shop more consciously, maybe by buying local food that isn’t grown using pesticides, or choosing environmentally-friendly cleaning products.
Click here to receive a copy of an Action for Insects Guide from the Wildlife Trusts, with more information and guidance about how you can help insects at home.
Windier and rainier weather this week might not have welcomed you outside, but there’s still so much nature to appreciate even when the sun isn’t shining! Thanks again for sending in your photographs.
This photo of a green veined white butterfly (Pieris napi) shows brilliant detail of the texture of the wings and the scales, which appear similar to hairs, covering the body. These butterflies usually prefer areas of damp and lush vegetation but can be found in a variety of habitats. Its food plants consist of members of the cabbage family and caterpillars of this species are bright green, camouflaging well on leaves.
This juniper shield bug (Cyphostethus tristriatus) was spotted on a Lawson’s cypress. Although traditionally they feed on juniper, these insects have adapted to be able to also use Lawson’s cypress, which has enabled them to extend their range across the UK.
Wildflowers can be grown really easily in your garden and are a fantastic way to help insects and other wildlife in your local area. Here is a wonderful picture of some ‘cornfield weeds’ planted from a seed packet.
A walk through Whitacre Heath Nature Reserve was rewarded with an array of wildlife and this tawny owl feather found on the path. It took a while to identify it, looking very similar to a buzzard feather! The wildflowers, including ox-eye daisies, bird’s foot trefoil and thistles are welcomed habitats and food sources for insects and birds. The Wildlife Trusts have recently released their report ‘Reversing the Decline of Insects’, and maintaining an abundance of insect habitats is essential for contributing towards reversing their decline. You can read more and download a free guide explaining how you can help the ‘Action for Insects‘ initiative on the Wildlife Trusts website.
The world is full of under-appreciated wildlife. Here are four species that, despite their mundane reputation, have fascinating characteristics.
Houseflies… yuck, no thanks! Wait – actually, the common housefly has incredible capabilities.
Like most insects, they can walk upside down thanks to pulvilli, pad-like structures covered in tiny hairs on the bottoms of their feet. The importance of their feet doesn’t stop there, however, as houseflies also taste with their feet. Chemoreceptors, organs which detect taste, are located on the lower legs, allowing the fly to taste as they walk over food materials. You might have seen flies rubbing their legs together – this is them cleaning their legs to ‘reset’ the chemoreceptors before a new meal.
Their intricate compound eyes allow houseflies to see in an almost 360° field of view, allowing them to watch out for predators whilst flying. They can process images seven times faster than humans, which is why flies can always get away so fast when someone tries to swat them. Studies have shown that male houseflies’ eyes also contain a ‘love spot’, a region important in detecting female flies to mate with.
Houseflies are adapted to an exclusively liquid diet. Their mouthparts are modified to form a proboscis which acts as a straw with a sponge on the end to efficiently suck up liquids.
We should be jealous, really. However, they can spread some pretty harmful disease-causing bacteria, so make sure they don’t land on your food!
Perhaps interesting to some, but to many snails are another commonly overlooked garden-dweller.
Snails have ‘teeth’. Not the type of teeth we have, though. Their radula, an internal feeding organ which acts like a tongue, has thousands of tiny ‘teeth’ arranged like a conveyor belt along its surface. In different species of snail, these teeth are adapted for different diets. The teeth are also constantly replaced as they are worn down, ensuring snails can always feed effectively.
Most snails are hermaphroditic, meaning they can mate with themselves if needs be. From an evolutionary point of view, this gives species a better shot at continuing the family line if no mates are available.
Snails also grow their own homes. Well… their shells. Shells are made of calcium carbonate, a strong substance which gives snails the protection they need. Sclerites are the plates making up the shell, and are secreted by the snail itself.
If you have a garden with a lawn, you might value grass for its aesthetic properties. Or maybe you appreciate its softness during a picnic in the park. Or its smoothness on golf courses. But did you know that across the world, there are 11,400 different types of grass?
All grasses belong to the Poaceae family, which is one of the most species-rich families in the world, and the 4th largest flowering plant family.
Grasses leaves are arranged in special patterns to optimise photosynthesis. Optimal photosynthesis requires maximum light capture, so leaves tend to be spread out to avoid being shaded by each other.
Most grasses can tolerate grazing, or mowing in the case of lawns. This is because their apical meristems, the part from which shoots and leaves grow from, is at or below ground level. New growth can always continue if grasses are cut – something which isn’t true for many other plants.
Finally, the Poaceae family provides around 80% of global food supply, containing over 1/3 of the most important food crops such as rice, wheat and maize. However, typical lawn grass has undergone so much artificial selection and forced evolution that it is unrecognisable from its food crop relatives!
Are dandelions a weed? They grow prolifically, and usually exactly where you don’t want them if you are a gardener. However, they boast unique and useful properties that might make you reconsider their reputation.
The name ‘dandelions’ is derived from the French “dent de lion”, meaning “lion’s tooth”, like the tooth-like serrations on their leaves. Their bright yellow flower heads are actually formed from many many tiny individual flowers, called florets.
Every part of a dandelion plant has a use to humans, whether that be for food, medicinal properties, or dyes. Dandelions are thought by many to have possible healing properties, although their effectiveness is debated.
Dandelions can make clones of themselves without the need for fertilisation. This is in fact a feature shared by a number of other plant species, but is the reason why their growth seems so prolific.
They also adopt the widely-used technique of nyctinasty, involving the closing of petals at night. Dandelions ‘go to sleep’ at night as a response to an ‘internal clock’. Photoreceptors, structures which detect light, have the important job of ensuring the the internal clock is set in time with levels of light in the environment.
Finally, dandelions are important flowers for pollinators such as bees. They have a long flowering season, so are depended on for consistent nectar production. Letting dandelions grow is an easy and effective way to make your garden more environmentally friendly.
There are around 2500 species of moths in the UK. Compared to the 60-ish species of butterflies, this is impressive. The great diversity of moth species makes for some fascinating findings from moth trapping – all possible within your garden.
Despite the huge number of moth species living here, we don’t often see them unless we are actively looking, because, of course, most moths are nocturnal – hiding away in the day and coming out when it is dark. Moth trapping is a simple and humane way to identify and take a closer look at moths by attracting them to a light source. The method is harmless to the moths, allowing them to be safely released or free to fly away.
Traditional moth traps can be bought or made at home if you are more serious about recording and identifying moths, however for beginners a simple and effective methods is to create a light trap using a sheet and a torch.
Make sure it is dark when you use your moth trap – turn off nearby lights too.
You can also create a similar trap by spreading a sheet out on the ground and placing a standing lantern-style torch in the middle.
Moths will be most active on warm nights with a little breeze.
Avoid touching the moths, especially on their wings, as this can damage them.
Avoid setting up your trap every night as this can disturb behavioural patterns of moths and other insects.
It is National Insect Week this week (22nd to 28th June 2020), so this is a great way to get involved and celebrate the most diverse and ecologically important group of land-living animals! If you have a camera, why not take some pictures of the moths you find – send us your photos at email@example.com. You can even enter them into the official National Insect Week photography competition if you’re feeling extra artistic!